Biological activated carbon (BAC)
– used in wastewater treatment to remove organic micropollutants by combined biodegradation and activated carbon adsorption.
– a process where nitrate or nitrite is reduced to nitrogen gas in the absence of dissolved oxygen.
Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) or endocrine disruptors
– are natural and synthetic compounds that interfere the normal function of the body’s endocrine system causing, for example, harmful reproductive and developmental effects.
Estrogenic potential or estrogenicity
– the potential of the compound to interact with the estrogen receptor
– means causing damage to the genes.
Granular activated carbon (GAC) filtration
– a filtration process where the active carbon, in the form of granules, is fixed in a filter cartridge.
– done in artificial or controlled environment; also known as “test tube experiment”.
– done on a living subject, ex. animal testing.
– a separation technique using liquid as a mobile phase
Membrane bioreactor (MBR)
– a widely used wastewater treatment technology combining membrane filtration and biological activated sludge process.
– the capacity of the substance to induce mutations.
– disease-causing microorganisms which includes protozoa, bacteria and viruses.
Powdered activated carbon (PAC)
– a form of active carbon used in wastewater treatment to remove dissolved organic contaminants by adsorption process.
– refer to pharmaceuticals and personal care products, a group of micropollutants considered as environmentally-relevant compounds.
– is usually employed following secondary biological treatment in order to enhance the quality of the effluent before discharge or further reuse.
– refer to oxidation products, degradation products or metabolites that are formed after biological or chemical degradation of micropollutants.
Sand filtration (SF)
– a wastewater treatment process consists of a multiple layer of sand particles of different diameter commonly used to enhance water quality and usually applied as a polishing step to further remove suspended solids, BOD, and bacteria.
– is a separation process using membrane with nominal pore size of 0.1 to 0.01 micron.
Wastewater quality parameters:
BOD – Biochemical oxygen demand
– the amount of oxygen used by microorganisms for the biological oxidation of organic matter and ammonium, usually expressed as BOD5 (over a period of 5 days) or BOD7 (7 days period.
DOC – Dissolved organic carbon
– is the fraction of organic carbon in the dissolved form that passed through a 0.45 micron filter.
– the amount of nitrogen in the form of ammonium.
Total P – Total Phosphorus
– the amount of phosphorus in the effluent present as soluble inorganic phosphate and organic phosphorus.
TSS – Total suspended solids
– the solid particles in the wastewater; measured as the amount of dried biomass retained in the filter after evaporating in an oven at ~105°C.